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Research Papers/Articles

Manuka honey has been the subject of numerous scientific studies at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. It is still being studied by scientists in New Zealand, Australia, the United States and around the world. We have provided references to some of the scientific studies that have been done to date.

Honey research papers

The antibacterial activity of honey: 1. The nature of the antibacterial activity
Molan, Peter C. (2006)
Honey has been used as a medicine since ancient times in many cultures and is still used in ‘folk medicine’. The use of honey as a therapeutic substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession in more recent times ...

The antibacterial activity of honey: 2. Variation in the potency of the antibacterial activity
Molan, Peter C. (1992)
Honey is gaining acceptance by the medical profession for use as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other surface infections resulting from burns and wounds. In many cases, it is being ...

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Why honey is effective as a medicine. 2. The scientific explanation of its effects
Molan, Peter C. (2001)
The effectiveness of honey as a therapeutic agent has been unequivocally demonstrated in the literature reviewed in Part 1 of this article published in 1999, but the biochemical explanation of these effects is more ...

The antibacterial activity of honey: 2. Variation in the potency of the antibacterial activity
Molan, Peter C. (1992)
Honey is gaining acceptance by the medical profession for use as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other surface infections resulting from burns and wounds. In many cases, it is being ...

The effect of manuka honey on enterobacteria
Lin, Shih-Min (Sam) (The University of Waikato, 2010)
Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) produced in New Zealand has been shown to exhibit substantial antibacterial activity against a broad range of pathogens causing wound infection and is being used in wound management ...

The Study of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Components of Manuka Honey
Wang, Hao (University of Waikato, 2011)
The phenolic compounds of honey have been known to pose significantly antioxidant activity, including iron-binding and free radical scavenging activity. Manuka honey has been widely used in wound treatment and the antioxidant ...

Honey as an antiviral agent against respiratory syncytial virus
Zareie, Parvaneh Palma (University of Waikato, 2011)
Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequent cause of hospitalisation for viral respiratory infections in infants and young children worldwide. It also severely affects immunocompromised adults and the elderly, however, ...

Re-introducing honey in the management of wounds and ulcers - theory and practice
Molan, Peter C. (2002)
Dressing wounds with honey were standard practice in past times but went out of fashion when antibiotics came into use. There has been a renaissance in its usage now that antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a widespread ...

The controlled in vitro susceptibility of gastrointestinal pathogens to the antibacterial effect of Manuka honey
Lin, Shih-Min (Sam); Molan, Peter C.; Cursons, Raymond T. (Springer, 2011)
The susceptibility of common gastrointestinal bacteria against Manuka honey with median level non-peroxide antibacterial activity (equivalent to that of 16.5% phenol) was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory ...

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The use of honey in healing a recalcitrant wound following surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa
Cooper, R.A.; Molan, Peter C.; Krishnamoorthy, L.; Harding, K.G. (2001)
Ancient civilizations used honey to heal wounds. Despite the rediscovery of honey by modern physicians its use in conventional medicine, unlike in complementary medicine, remains limited. Much anecdotal evidence, some ...

Using honey in wound care
Molan, Peter C. (2006)
Honey is primarily a herbal product with some modifications that are made by the bees that process the nectar or sap collected from the plants to store as honey. The types of phytochemicals present in a honey depend on the ...

Clinical usage of honey as a wound dressing: An update
Molan, Peter C. (2004)
Honey is an ancient treatment that is increasingly earning its place in modern wound care. Evidence suggests it compares with other dressings in terms of its antibacterial properties, ease of use and ability to promote a ...

The role of honey in the management of wounds
Molan, Peter C. (1999)
The widespread development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has generated an increasing interest in the use of alternate therapies for the treatment of infected wounds. In 1989, an editorial in the Journal of the Royal ...

Using honey to heal diabetic foot ulcers
Molan, Peter C.; Betts, J.A. (2008)
Diabetic ulcers seem to be arrested in the inflammatory/proliferative stage of the healing process, allowing infection and inflammation to preclude healing. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a major cause of ...

The evidence supporting the use of honey as a wound dressing
Molan, Peter C. (2006)
Some clinicians are under the impression that there is little or no evidence to support the use of honey as a wound dressing. This impression is reinforced by it being concluded in systematic reviews that the evidence is ...

Why honey is effective as a medicine. 1. Its use in modern medicine
Molan, Peter C. (1999)
Honey has been used as a medicine for thousands of years and its curative properties are well documented. However, modern medicine turned its back on honey and it is only now, with the advent of multi-resistant bacteria, ...

The factors responsible for the varying levels of UMF® in mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey
Stephens, Jonathan McDonald Counsell (The University of Waikato, 2006)
The variability in the level of the non-peroxide antibacterial component (UMF®) of mānuka honey produced in New Zealand was studied. A field analysis confirmed considerable variability existed in the honey, and a number ...

For more information on scientific research being done in New Zealand, you can go to the Waikato University Research Commons and search for Manuka Honey.

Study: Manuka Honey Kills More Bacteria than all Available Antibiotics

Manuka Honey – DHA and Methylglyoxal Explained